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Selasa, 19 Januari 2010

ECOLOGY

Darwin’s theory of evolution was essentially ecological. He postulated that organisms which will survive to reproduce are those that are the best adapted to their enviroment. Ecologists are concerned with how organisms adapt to their enviroment in order to survive. The ecological functions of an organism are said to constitute its niche. For example, an insect may be a predator, but it may not prey on organisms much larger of much smaller than itself. Also, diurnal predators normally do not capture organisms that are nocturnal or that live in habitats unsuited to the predator. Many ecologist are proponents of a principle competitive exclution, which states thet each can be occupied by only one species, because when a required resource is limited and two one more species compete for it, one of the species will be eliminatedunless it can evolve to occupy a slightly different niche. One of the major trends in ecology is the increased use of mathematical modeling, which often requires the use of computers. Mathematical formulas are used to stimulate population fluctuations, mineral cycling, and energy flow. Models can be used to discover where our knowledge is inadequate, to aid in making generalizations and formulating ecological principles, and to help predict the fate of ecosystems under given sets of circumstances. The growing field of systems ecology uses theoretical analysis and experimental methods to study the disruption of ecosystems and the dynamics of their reconstruction . Systems ecology requires people trained in a wide variety of disciplines : mathematics, computers technology, physiology, microbiology, biochemistry, climatology, and taxonomy. Ecologists are more and more involved in solving problems caused by increased human population, increased pullution, increased need for energy, and increased attempts to destroy ecosystem for human uses. Taken from, Structure and Reading Comprehension. Drs.RA.Iskandar Yahya Dipl Tefl, Surayin BA, Dra. Ratu Yetty Amin Argakusuma Dilp Tefl. Orba Sakti, Bandung

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